CentOS 8 都更新了些什么

WHEN

https://wiki.centos.org/About/Building_8

2019-09-24 基于 RHEL8 的 CentOS 8 发布了

RHEL 8.1 beta 也出了一段时间,这次大版本的更新变化的地方还是蛮多的

WHAT

mirrorlist

AppStream 源替换了原来的 updates 源,还多了 module 相关的模块化安装:

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ && grep ^mirrorlist CentOS-*
CentOS-AppStream.repo:mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=AppStream&infra=$infra
CentOS-Base.repo:mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=BaseOS&infra=$infra
CentOS-centosplus.repo:mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus&infra=$infra
CentOS-Extras.repo:mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=extras&infra=$infra
CentOS-fasttrack.repo:mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=fasttrack&infra=$infra
CentOS-PowerTools.repo:mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=PowerTools&infra=$infra

http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=8&arch=x86_64&repo=AppStream
http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=8&arch=x86_64&repo=BaseOS
http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=8&arch=x86_64&repo=centosplus
http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=8&arch=x86_64&repo=extras
http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=8&arch=x86_64&repo=fasttrack
http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=8&arch=x86_64&repo=PowerTools

https://developers.redhat.com/blog/2018/11/15/rhel8-introducing-appstreams/

yum module

https://docs.centos.org/en-US/8-docs/managing-userspace-components/assembly_finding-rhel-8-content/

直接用 yum search 是找不到 ipa-server 的,被放入到了 idm:DL1/server module :

# yum module list idm:DL1/server
CentOS-8 - AppStream
Name        Stream        Profiles                                       Summary
idm         DL1           common [d], adtrust, client, dns, server       The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Identity Management system module

Hint: [d]efault, [e]nabled, [x]disabled, [i]nstalled

# yum module info idm:DL1/server|head
Last metadata expiration check: 1:02:17 ago on Mon 14 Oct 2019 03:58:38 PM CST.
Ignoring unnecessary profile: 'idm/server'
Name             : idm
Stream           : DL1
Version          : 8000020190628154621
Context          : e0ee5dbd
Profiles         : common [d], adtrust, client, dns, server
Default profiles : common
Repo             : AppStream
Summary          : The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Identity Management system module

# yum module info --profile idm:DL1/server
Last metadata expiration check: 0:24:39 ago on Mon 14 Oct 2019 03:58:38 PM CST.
Ignoring unnecessary profile: 'idm/server'
Name    : idm:DL1:8000020190628154621:e0ee5dbd:x86_64
common  : ipa-client
adtrust : ipa-idoverride-memberof-plugin
        : ipa-server-trust-ad
client  : ipa-client
dns     : ipa-server
        : ipa-server-dns
server  : ipa-server                        <-- ipa-server

rpm SPEC

https://git.centos.org/rpms/nginx/branches

grub

内核引导的配置从 /boot/grub2/grub.cfg 文件分离出来,放到 /boot/loader/entries/ 目录:

# tree -F /boot/loader/
/boot/loader/
└── entries/
    ├── bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb-0-rescue.conf
    ├── bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb-4.18.0-80.el8.x86_64.conf
    └── e9218483634816ff3282777cd960dedf-5.2.0-rc3.conf

1 directory, 3 files

# cat /boot/loader/entries/e9218483634816ff3282777cd960dedf-5.2.0-rc3.conf
title CentOS Linux (5.2.0-rc3) 8 (Core)
version 5.2.0-rc3
linux /vmlinuz-5.2.0-rc3
initrd /initramfs-5.2.0-rc3.img $tuned_initrd
options $kernelopts $tuned_params
id centos-20191007003758-5.2.0-rc3
grub_users $grub_users
grub_arg --unrestricted
grub_class kernel

默认引导内核:

# grubby --default-index
0

# grubby --default-kernel
/boot/vmlinuz-5.2.0-rc3

# grubby --info=ALL|awk -F\" '$1=="kernel=" {print i++ " : " $2}'
0 : /boot/vmlinuz-5.2.0-rc3
1 : /boot/vmlinuz-4.18.0-80.el8.x86_64
2 : /boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb

monitoring and updating the kernel Chapter 3. Configuring kernel command line parameters

修改(增/删)内核引导参数,可以用 grub2-editenv 命令:

grub2-editenv - set "$(grub2-editenv - list | grep kernelopts) <NEW_PARAMETER>"

grub2-editenv - set "$(grub2-editenv - list | grep kernelopts | sed -e 's/<PARAMETER_TO_REMOVE>//')"

也可以使用 grubby 命令,可以参考:

26.4. Making Persistent Changes to a GRUB 2 Menu Using the grubby Tool

grubby --remove-args="argX argY" --args="argA argB" --update-kernel /boot/kernel

kernel

内核的一些新特性:

  • CGroups V2
  • Overlay FS2
  • TCP BBR
  • ePBF / XDP

ePBF / XDP

Cilium 1.6: KVstore-free operation, 100% kube-proxy replacement, Socket-based load-balancing, … 2019-08-20

Kubernetes NodePort (beta)

Cilium to enable Kubernetes NodePort services in BPF which can replace NodePort implemented by kube-proxy. Enabling the feature allows to run a fully functioning Kubernetes cluster without kube-proxy. NodePort services depend on the Host-Reachable Services (beta) feature, therefore a v4.19.57, v5.1.16, v5.2.0 or more recent Linux kernel is required.

Making the Kubernetes Service Abstraction Scale using BPF

CentOS 8 系的内核版本 4.18.0 有点旧,不知未来 Cilium 的 NodePort 特性会不会支持 RHEL8 :

# rpm -q --queryformat="%{VERSION}\n" kernel
4.18.0

CGroups V2

World domination with cgroups in RHEL 8: welcome cgroups v2!

Migrating from CGroups V1 in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 and below to CGroups V2 in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

img

Above, the bg cgroup is associated with the blkio and memory cgroups in V1 but is a duplicated entry in the hierarchy since the bg cgroup is associated with multiple controllers. In V2, the bg cgroup exists once and has the memory and io controllers associated with it as described by cgroup.subtree_control.

内核引导增加 systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1 参数即可启用 CGroups V2 :

grubby --update-kernel=ALL --args="systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1"

systemctl set-property user.slice CPUQuota=50%

podman (docker/moby)

Redhat 造的替换 docker 的轮子 podman

  • CGroups V2
  • 非特权 普通用户

RHEL8 Building, running, and managing containers

Containers without daemons: Podman and Buildah available in RHEL 7.6 and RHEL 8

Fedora 31: Docker package no longer available and will not run by default (due to switch to cgroups v2)

The Docker package has been removed from Fedora 31. It has been replaced by the upstream package moby-engine, which includes the Docker CLI as well as the Docker Engine. However, we recommend instead that you use podman, which is a Cgroups v2-compatible container engine whose CLI is compatible with Docker’s. Fedora 31 uses Cgroups v2 by default. The moby-engine package does NOT support Cgroups v2 yet, so if you need to run the moby-engine or run the Docker CE package, then you need to switch the system to using Cgroups v1, by passing the kernel parameter systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=0

https://success.docker.com/article/compatibility-matrix

Docker EE 支持 CentOS 8

python

Chapter 6. Using Python in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

yumdnf 等系统工具对 python 的依赖跟 python 软件包解绑,搞了个 platform-python 马甲:

# rpm -ql platform-python
/usr/bin/pydoc3.6
/usr/bin/pyvenv-3.6
/usr/bin/unversioned-python
/usr/lib/.build-id
/usr/lib/.build-id/54
/usr/lib/.build-id/54/58bd10988cc975783b2801fff1f2fa253375e2
/usr/lib/.build-id/54/58bd10988cc975783b2801fff1f2fa253375e2.1
/usr/libexec/no-python
/usr/libexec/platform-python
/usr/libexec/platform-python3.6
/usr/libexec/platform-python3.6m
/usr/share/doc/platform-python
/usr/share/doc/platform-python/README.rst
/usr/share/licenses/platform-python
/usr/share/licenses/platform-python/LICENSE
/usr/share/man/man1/python.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/python3.6.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/unversioned-python.1.gz

# /usr/libexec/platform-python
Python 3.6.8 (default, Oct  7 2019, 17:58:22)
[GCC 8.2.1 20180905 (Red Hat 8.2.1-3)] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>>

要用 python3 还是需要单独安装 python36 软件包:

# rpm -q platform-python python36
platform-python-3.6.8-4.el8_0.x86_64
python36-3.6.8-2.module_el8.0.0+33+0a10c0e1.x86_64


本文标题CentOS 8 都更新了些什么
原始链接https://lvii.github.io/system/2019-10-29-what-new-features-in-centos-8/